Currently, pepper has become one of the leading exporting industries in Vietnam. In which, the main export product of our country is black pepper (accounting for about 90%). However, white pepper is quite expensive, usually 1.5-2 times more than black pepper. Therefore, the trend of researching and using highly efficient post-harvest pepper processing processes is of great interest.

 

The traditional method of producing white pepper

 

Black pepper is dried and packed into bags. Afterward, pepper is soaked in water for 8-10 days. Pepper is picked up, scrubbed, and washed for white pepper (white pepper can be soaked in clean water for 1-2 days to eliminate odors. The expected humidity is 12-13 degrees, and the product is packed in 2 layers.

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White pepper information

The disadvantage of this method is about the time of soaking pepper. Water may turn smelly, cause bad effects on the surrounding environment. Consequently, pepper may be contaminated with microorganisms. 

 

The mechanical method of producing white pepper

 

Using mechanically operated energy sources 3-phases 380V.  The process and collision between pepper berries and propeller creates friction and removes outer skin. 

The disadvantage of this method is the waste of expense and energy because of the high rate of breakages in pepper berries.

 

Chemical method

 

Black pepper is soaked underwater for about 4 days, and boiled in NaOH 4% to remove the outer skin.  Afterward, the skin is bleached in H2O2 2,5% and dried. White pepper produced in this method can acquire the basic standard of both physic and chemistry.

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White pepper product

Chemical methods require a large amount of water. Just for the skin to soften, 30 times more water is used compared to the raw material.

 

Biological method

 

Using microorganisms

Bacillus is a combination of 3 different bacteria: mycoides, licheniformic và brevis, which contain cellulose to remove to the outer skin of black pepper. This method will shorten the time to remove the outer skin and the berries can keep their original sense. 

Using enzymes

Several enzymes used in white pepper production are cellulose, hemicellulose, pectinase, and protopectinase have the ability to decompose. This method can combine different enzymes in the soaking process and shorten the production time, limit the impacts on the environment, and reduce the number of microorganisms. This method is simple and easy to replicate production.

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